Types of texts

The textual genres are classified according to the common characteristics that the texts present in relation to language and content.

There are many textual genres, which promote an interaction between the interlocutors (emitter and receiver) of a given discourse.

Examples are journalistic review, advertising, cake recipe, restaurant menu, ticket or grocery list.

It is important to consider its context, function and purpose, since the textual genre may contain more than one textual type. This, for example, means that a cake recipe presents the list of necessary ingredients (descriptive text) and the mode of preparation (injunctive text).

Types of Textual Genres

Each text has a language and structure. Note that there are innumerable textual genres within the typological categories of text. In other words, textual genres are peculiar textual structures that arise from the types of texts: narrative, descriptive, argumentative, expository, expositive and injunctive.

Narrative text

The narrative texts present actions of characters in time and space. The structure of the narration is divided into: presentation, development, climax and outcome.

Some examples of textual narrative genres:

  • Romance
  • Soap opera
  • Chronic
  • Fairy tales
  • Fable
  • Legends

Descriptive text

The descriptive texts are concerned with reporting and exposing a particular person, object, place, event. In this way, they are texts full of adjectives, which describe or present images from the sensorial perceptions of the speaker (emitter).

Examples of descriptive textual genres include:

  • daily
  • Reports (travel, historical, etc.)
  • Biography and autobiography
  • News
  • Curriculum
  • Shopping list
  • Menu
  • Classified ads

Dissertation-Argumentative Text

The essay texts are those in charge of exposing a theme or subject through arguments. They are marked by the defense of a point of view, while at the same time trying to persuade the reader. Its textual structure is divided into three parts: thesis (presentation), antithesis (development), new thesis (conclusion).

Examples of dissertation textual genres:

  • Newspaper Editorial
  • Opinion letter
  • Review
  • Article
  • Test
  • Monograph, master’s thesis and doctoral thesis

Expository Text

The expository texts have the function of exposing a certain idea, through resources such as: definition, conceptualization, information, description and comparison.

Some examples of textual expository genres:

  • About us
  • Speeches
  • Conferences
  • Interviews
  • Academic work
  • Encyclopedia
  • Dictionary verbs
  • Injunctive Text

The injunctive text, also called instructional text, is the one that indicates an order, so that the speaker (sender) aims to guide and persuade the interlocutor (receiver). Therefore, they present, in most cases, verbs in the imperative.

Some examples of injunctive textual genres:

  • Advertising
  • Cooking recipe
  • Medicine bottle
  • Instruction manual
  • Regulation
  • Prescriptive texts

Learn more textual genres:

  • Anecdote
  • Blog
  • Reportage
  • Cartoon
  • Letter
  • Email
  • Declaration
  • Memo
  • Ticket
  • Report
  • Application
  • ATA
  • Poster
  • Khartoum
  • Letter of attorney
  • Crowded
  • Circular
  • Contract